In this forecast report Asociația Expert Forum (EFOR) identifies and analyzes the foreseeable risks and obstacles to the continued convergence and Romania’s enhanced role in the EU.


Three decades ago, Romania was fortunate to come under the gravitational influence of the European Union, resulting in a more prosperous, peaceful, and free life for Romanians than any previous generation had experienced. Now, we face the question: Will future generations be able to say the same about us? The answer hinges on the decisions we make today.


This report is intended to spark a serious discussion about the changes and challenges Romania will face over the next decade, including urgent risks that require immediate action. It presents difficult policy dilemmas, acknowledging that while no one can predict the future, certain trends are clear. Economic convergence with the EU can no longer be assumed as a given. Significant demographic changes, from aging populations to migration, may impact Romania more severely than other European nations. Inequality and educational outcomes are critical factors that could either propel Romania toward technological competitiveness or hinder its progress. Moreover, Romania’s energy transition could either foster sustainable economic growth or lead to economic stagnation.